The given Qualification paper contains introduction, two chapters, and samples of translations of political set expressions, conclusion and bibliography list.
Most translators prefer to think of their work as a profession and would like to see others to treat them like professionals rather than as skilled or semi-skilled workers. But to achieve this, translators need to develop an ability to stand back and reflect on what they do and how they do it. Like doctors and engineers, they have to prove to themselves as well as others that they are in control of what they do; that they do not just translate well because they have ‘flair’ for translation, but rather because, like other professionals, they have made a conscious effort to understand various aspects of their work.
Unlike medicine and engineering, translation is a very young discipline in academic terms. It is only just starting to feature as a subject of study in its own right, not yet in all but in an increasing number of universities and colleges around the world. Like any young discipline, it needs to draw on the findings and theories of other related disciplines in order to develop and formalize its own methods; but which disciplines it can naturally and fruitfully be related to is still a matter of some controversy. Almost every aspect of life in general and of the interaction between speech communities in particular can be considered relevant to translation, a discipline which has to concern itself with how meaning is generated within and between various groups of people in various cultural settings. This is clearly too big an area to investigate in one go. So, let us just start by saying that, if translation is ever to become a profession in the full sense of the word, translators will need something other than the current mixture of intuition and practice to enable them to reflect on what they do and how they do it. They will need, above all, to acquire a sound knowledge of the raw material with which they work: to understand what language is and how it comes to function for its users.
In this research work we have completed the following tasks:
we have reviewed all the sources of Political literature
we revealed the methods and ways of translation of Political literature
and we have also investigated grammatical, lexical, phraseological and stylistic difficulties of translation of Political literature.
In this Qualification paper we have reviewed almost all the grammatical, lexical, stylistic difficulties of translation of Political Literature.
While reviewing the grammatical changes we considered the following transformations: substitution, omission, transposition and supplementation.
Substitution is one of the grammatical relations among the parts of the sentences. In substitution, an item (or items) is replaced by another item (or items), ex:
I like Politics. And I do. or
Will the United Stated start the war against Iraq? – No one knows.
The words like do, one, the same are usually used in substitution.
Omission, as you know is when an item is replaced by nothing. This is a case of leaving something unsaid which is nevertheless understood. The example is:
In the World War II the Soviet Union lost over 70 millions of life. And the United States less than 10.
A hearer will easily infer what happened to the United States during the war.
Transposition is required when the English sentence contains a large group of nouns with indefinite article and then it is natural that they, being the center of informative message are placed at the end of the sentence. Besides, a short, compared with the noun predicate can not bear the emphatic sense of a large group of nouns.
A big wave of actions by all sections of workers – skilled and unskilled, men and women, manual and non-manual – for higher wages and equal pay, for shorter hours and a greater say in shaping the environment at work is rising.
Сейчас нарастает огромная волна забастовок трудящихся всех категорий – квалифицированных и не квалифицированных, мужчин и женщин, работников физического и умственного труда – за повышение зарплаты, за равную оплату женского труда, за сокращение рабочего дня, за улучшение условий труда.
Supplementation happens to be very frequent when translating texts on International politics because we do not always have corresponding words for some English or American notions like:
Реферат опубликован: 21/05/2007