In an atomic war women and children will be the first hostages.
The word hostage according to different dictionaries has got only one meaning – заложник. But in the given instance the hostage acquired the meaning жертва. Its contextual meaning probably exists in its paradigmatic meaning; any hostage may get killed therefore while translating this example we have to use the word жертва since заложник is not used in the given contextual meaning.
Первыми жертвами в атомной войне будут женщины и дети.
A very interesting contextual meaning of exploitation will be given in the following example:
Britain’s worldwide exploitation was shaken to the roots by Colonial Liberation Movements.
The contextual meaning of the word originated metonymically – any colonial system lives on exploitation, which comprises basis of colonial power. The corresponding Russian эксплуатация can not be used in this contextual meaning, the contextual surroundings of exploitation (worldwide, shaken to the roots) also prevents it. The only possible variant of translation is by means of metonymic transposition – substitution:
Колониальное могущество Англии было подорвано (потрясено до основания) национально-освободительным движением во всех колониях.
Contextual meaning of a word is always effective semantically and stylistically owing to its unexpectedness as well. It often used in stylistic purposes and therefore a translator runs into two obstacles: he should avoid (нивелировка) and at the same time not to break the norms of translation.
The most difficulty presents the translation of emotional coloring that demands lexical changes. There is a wide range of words in a language that besides their logical meaning have emotional meanings or co-meaning. One should not mix emotional co-meaning with the multiple meaning words. Emotional meaning of words usually presents in paradigmatic meanings of words, that is it is objective and but subjective, like in the words: hate, love, friendship. But it is not an exception when emotional meaning originates from contextual usage. Emotional meaning, based in the word is usually created by association – positive or negative – which a word causes and the associations that exist in it despite the context of perception.
A peculiar group of words demanding transformation in translation are the words that possess different volume of meaning in Russian and English languages. To this group belong international words, some words of human perception, mental activity.
But we should mention that the words that belong to these groups are of different semantic structure. International words and the words of human perception, mental activity represents polysemantic words in English.
International words are words that are used in a wide range of languages in one or several forms. These words express scientific and social-politic notions. The volume meaning of these words does not usually coincide (except term-words). Though it is well-known that they comprise the false-friends of translators and the mistakes in their translation are frequent. These mistakes are caused not only by difference in their semantic structure but by the difference of their usage as well which demand lexical changes:
We are told that television this autumn will give a massive coverage to the General Election.
Сообщают, что нынешней осенью передачи по телевидению будут широко освещать парламентские выборы.
The word massive along with the meaning массивный, has other meanings like массовый, грандиозный, огромный, широкий and so on. For example: massive success – огромный успех, massive problems – важные проблемы.
Since international words possess wider meaning volume they are more used in English if comparing to Russian:
Never before in the history of the world have there been so many persons engaged in the translation of both secular and religious materials.
Ещё никогда в истории человечества столько людей не занимались переводом как светской, так и духовной литературы.
Russian words религиозные материалы are absolutely unacceptable in this case because of their different usage. In this instance the usage plays the main role though their meaning is identical in both languages.
Lexical transformations are also caused by necessity to concretize a word while translating. It is characteristic to English language the availability of words with wide spread meaning. They can be nouns, adjectives and verbs, for example: thing, point, stiff; nice, fine, bad; to say, to go, to come, to get.
Реферат опубликован: 21/05/2007