Он хочет, чтобы парни в белых шапках следили за порядком в баре до тех пор, пока он не уедет из города. Он хочет, чтобы бармен не был коммунистом и чтобы шериф не был коммунистом и чтобы город заведомо не был в руках коммунистов. И только тогда он поскачет навстречу ноябрьским сумеркам 1972 года.
And at the end of clause — «но все это несколько сложнее, чем пятясь к двери, выбраться из бара».
However there are cases, when the preservation of all figurative components of the developed(unwrapped) metaphor is impossible, as well as preservation of both components of synonymic pair, for it would break the stylistic norms of Russian.
Being purely linguistic and stylistic device – metonymy is used more and more in political literature, perhaps, even more than metaphor. Metonymy translation presents one of numerous problems for the use of metonymy significantly differs in English and Russian languages. Due to this fact the translator is often forced to go back to the primary meaning of a word, that is to the meaning that was firstly created by metonymy.
It is a widespread case of metonymy usage – substitution of concrete notion by an abstract one, which can not always be preserved.
"It (the flood) has hurl us a great deal, " the Pakistan Prime Minister told correspondents last week as he toured the destruction in the flooded provinces. ("Newsweek")
«Наводнение нанесло нам огромный ущерб»,—сказал корреспондентам премьер-министр Пакистана, на прошлой неделе во время поездки по пострадавшим от наводнения районам.
Concerning the translation of comparison as a stylistic device, the difficulties arise only if the words of English and Russian languages are various in the semantic structure. We have already considered in the chapter of lexical transformations the question of translation of such terms and now we would like to give the example of stylistic comparison.
Instant history, like instant coffee, can sometimes be remarkably palatable. At least it is in this memoir by a former White House aide who sees L.B.J. as " an extraordinarily gifted President who was the wrong man from the wrong place at the wrong time under the wrong circumstances ".
Современная история, как и такой современный продукт, как растворимый кофе, иногда может быть необыкновенно приятна. По крайней мере, такой ее преподносит в своих мемуарах бывший помощник президента Джонсона, считающий его «исключительно одаренным президентом, который был неподходящим человеком, из неподходящего места (штат Техас), в неподходящее время, при неподходящих обстоятельствах».
In order to preserve this playing comparison, the interpreters were forced to apply additional words.
We discussed above the importance of articles in translation and now we should mention once again that they can serve in stylistic purposes.
An expressiveness gets the definite article, before a indefinite pronoun one.
. this is the one way we can achieve success in elections.
.это единственный способ достигнуть победы на выборах.
The given synonyms compensate render the stress contained the original text.
There is another kind of stylistic transformation – actualization – which involves transition of something simple into something unusual, strange. It reveals potential expressiveness put in the lexical morphologic and syntactic means of a language.
Actualization of the passive form often occurs while translating political literature but it is not as colored as in the translations of fiction.
The General Assembly was gaveled to order by its outgoing President.
Уходящий со своего поста председатель Генеральной Ассамблее навел порядок в зале, энергично стуча молотком.
The expressiveness and emphasis created by the passive form of the verb that had been formed as a result of conversion are compensated by lexical means. The compressed nature of sentence was lost for the verb to gavel has two semantic components one of action and an instrument that were to be rendered in translation.
Now from everything that has been discussed above we can infer that the usage of some of stylistic devices in English is peculiar – and bears specific national character, therefore their direct translation in many instances is impossible. Moreover, the impression left by some of stylistic device maybe different in both languages, compare soft panic and тихая паника. It can be explained not only by national features of stylistic means and devices of some of the language but by the their multi functioning character also – that do not always coincide – as it was shown on the matter of alliteration. This is the main criteria causing the necessity of stylistic transformations that involve substitution and changes. Therefore we should warn the future translators and interpreters that it is not important to classify the device itself but the point is to be able to realize their ongoing effect and to identify the purpose of their application in the translation they are working on.
Реферат опубликован: 21/05/2007