Moscow the capital of Russia is one of the world’s great cities. Its name was first mentioned in chronicles in 1147. Since that time M. has played an important role in R-an history. Today M. isn’t only the political center of R. but also the contry’s leading city in population, industry & in cultural importrance. M. stands on the M.R. in the center of the vast plain of E.R. The climate of M. is continental. Winters are long & dark with a lot of snow. Spring is rather short & the temperature rises quickly during late April. Summers are warm & July is the warmest month. Rainy days are quite common but the summer rainfall often comes in heavy showers & thunderstorms. Autumn like spring is brief with rapidly falling temp-s. M. is the largest industrial center of R. The most important industries are those producing automobiles & trucks, machine tools, radio & TV sets. M. plants & factories also produce food, furniture, clothes & footwear. The most important element in M’s city transport is the metro subway. The system was begun in 1935 & is still developing. M. has numerouse theatres headed by the B. theatre. I know such theatres as the M. art theatre, the state central puppet theatre & the M. state circus. M. has some museums & art galleries of international rank. Among them are the state Pushkin museum of fine arts & the state Tretyakov Gallery with an exellent collection of R.paintings.
UK. The UK of Great Britain & Northen Island with an area of some 244sq. miles is situated on the British Isles, which are separated from the European continent by the North Sea, the Strait of Dover & the English Channel. Britain’s population is over 56 million people. The territory of Gr. Britain is small. Yet the country has a wide variety of scenery. The capital of Gr. Britain London stands on the Thames which flows into the North Sea. The Thames is the deepest & the most important river in Gr. Britain but isn’t very long. The Severn, which flows into the Irish Sea, is the longest British river. The climate of Gr. Britain is mild. The Atlantic Ocean & the warm waters of the Gulf-Stream affects the weather of the British Isles. The summers are usually cool rainy. There is much rain & fog in autumn & in winter. The heart of Britain is England. It is the richest & most populated in the country. The north & the E. are mountainous, but all the rest of the territory is a vast plain. In northwest E there are many beautiful lakes called Lake District. The smallest of Britain’s countries is Wales. The large part of Wales is covered with rocky mountains, which are difficult to climb. Scotland is a land of mountains, wild moorlands, narrow valleys & plains, famous lakes & no end of large & small islands of the coast. The highlands of Scotland are among the oldest mountains in the world. The UK is a monarchy the head of the state is a king or a queen. In fact the sovrin rings, but doesn’t rule. The UK is governed by the Government. Parliament consists of 2 houses – The House of Lords & the House of Commons. The members of the House of Commons are election every 5 years. The House of Commons is very important because it makes laws. The members of The House of Lords are permanent. The House of Lords can delete & change laws.
London. The capital of Gr. Britain is London. It is an ancient city many centures old. L. was built by the Romans many years ago. They built a town on the river Thames. The name of the town was Londinium. In Roman times it was a small town. In 1666 there was the Great Fire of L. After that people built a new city. About 9 million people live in L. It is the seat of government of the whole country. It is also the center of British cultural life & famous for its places of interest. Trafalgar Square is a good starting point for any tour of L. In the middle of the square is Nelson’s column. This square is the place for all sorts of meetings & demonstrations. On the north side of the square are the National Gallery & the National Portrait Gallery. In the corner of Tr. Sq. stands the old & well-known church of St. Martin-the-Fields. The most important parts of L. are the City, the East End, the West End & Westminster. One of the most beautiful sights in L. is Westminster Abbey. It is an outstanding example of medieval architecture. Many English kings & queens are buried there. In the south side is the Poets’ Corner where many of the greatest Eng. Writers & scientists are buried. There are many monuments of great men here. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace the seat of British parliament. At one end of the palace is Clock tower with the largest clock called Big Ben in it & at the other end – the Victoria Tower. The oldest part of L. is called the City, it isn’t very large but it is very important, its financial & business center. 2 masterpieces are situated within the City: St. Paul Cathedral & the Tower of L. The East End is the poorest part & an industrial district of L. There are many factories & large riverside docks there with the port of L. The West End is the richest & most beautiful part of L. It is situated between the City & Hyde Park of L. The West End is a symbol of wealth & luxury.
Реферат опубликован: 5/10/2008