The second step is to analyze the problem and decide what additional information is necessary before a decision can be taken. Getting the facts is essential in decision-making. However, as already mentioned, the manager will rarely have all the knowledge he needs. This is one reason why making decisions involves a degree of risk. It is the manager’s job to minimize that risk.
Once the problem has been defined and the facts collected, the manager should consider the options for solving it. This is necessary because there are usually several ways of solving a problem. The enterprise might be modernized or service might be improved, for example.
Before making a decision, the manager will carefully access the options, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Having done this, he will have to take a decision. Perhaps he will compromise using more than the option.
VII. Communications in excellent companies are different from those in other companies. Excellent companies have “open communications”. People working in them keep in contact with each other regularly. The companies do everything possible to ensure that staff meets easily and frequently.
One problem with communication is that we do not, in fact, communicative as effectively as we think we do. This is important for managers. It suggests that, when giving instructions, managers must make sure that those instructions have been understood and interpreted correctly.
A breakdown in communications is to happen if there are some kinds of social distance between people. In organizations people may have difficulty communicating if they are different in status, or if one person has a much higher position than the other. It is risky to tell the truth to someone higher up in the hierarchy – they may not like what they hear and hold it against you. For this reason staffs often “filter” information.
One way of reducing social distance – and improving communications – is to cut down on status symbols. It is possible, for example, to have a common dining-room for all staff.
Physical surroundings and physical distance limit or encourage communication. The physical layout of an office must be carefully planned.
Another important barrier to communication is selective perception. This means that people perceive things in different ways. The world of the sender is not the same as the world of the receiver. A manager will say something but the employee will interpret his meaning incorrectly.
Communication problems will arise, from time to time, in the best-run companies. However, to minimize such problems, managers must remember one thing. Communication should be a two-way process. Managers should encourage staff to ask questions and to react to what the managers are saying. The most useful question a manager can ask is “Did you understand that?”
VIII. In the lodging industry it is important that managers should be effective. They must be able to achieve their objectives. The problem is that there are so many pressures on managers, reducing their efficiency. The managers find that they do not have enough time to devote to the really important jobs. They find that other people take up a lot of their time, so that they have little time of their own.
Effective managers learn how to manage their time. They cut out unproductive activities. They never forget that time cannot be replaced.
Before being able to control his time, the manager must find out how he is actually using it. He must know where it goes. The best way to do this is to record how he uses time. One way of logging time is to note down all the activities and indicate how long they took. The manager can ask questions such as: Are some of the things I am doing wasting time? Should I be spending more time on certain activities? Knowing how to spend time is an essential skill of a manager.
Реферат опубликован: 26/04/2008