Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

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The prevailing technological, economic and organizational standards made a significant impact on the potential of foreign trade relations. “The cohesion of the economic space of the former USSR was affected through centralized state planning implemented by command-administrative management. In the process, the country’s economy worked as a ‘single workshop’, and not all production and economic links here were rational from the market point of view. The transition to a market economy throughout the economic space of the former USSR required a profound restructuring, and this called for considerable resources and time,” Ex-Prime Minister A.M. Kazhegeldin stressed.

The policy of liberalization of foreign trade activity and of open economy did not result in 1993 in any growth of exports. It amounted to $1.5 billion, thus remaining at the 1992 level. Shifts in the geography of Kazakhstan export due to the re-orientation of foreign trade links to industrially developed nations resulted in the strengthening of raw materials exports. The share of machines, equipment and transport vehicles in the export dropped to 2 percent, and the share of fuel and energy complex and that of metallurgy rose to 80 percent. Rising domestic prices prevented partners from concluding long-term foreign trade deals, stimulating instead commodity exchanges. The share of barter and clearing deals in export operations made up more than 26 percent. More than 56 percent of imports were affected through exchange of commodities. Barter operations were mostly in the nature of structurally unbalanced exchanges. The republic suffer considerable losses due to inadequate knowledge of the market conditions and the desire to access foreign markets at any price.

A noticeable feature of Kazakhstan economy is the low level of the development of machine building, which is not up to present-day requirements, and this makes an adverse impact on other branches of the economy, as it results in the common shortage of metal-tooling products. This aggravates the shortage of spare parts and of products used in several adjacent branches of industry and adversely affects the standards of servicing.

Some of Kazakhstan most important tasks in 1994 were the closure of, and changing production lines at, non-viable enterprises and development of promising export-oriented ones, which also satisfy domestic demand. This called for a set of measures to identify enterprises in the state of depression, closing down unprofitable lines of production in energy-consuming industries and rehabilitation and reorganization of non-profitable production lines.

The basis of the development of Kazakhstan, just as of Russia and many other CIS countries, is export of natural resources. In 1994, the government introduced regulations for the licensing of natural resources, and a law was adopted on payments for utilization of natural resources. It was at that time that efforts were initiated to attract domestic and foreign investors to develop the fuel and energy complex. The development began of the Tengiz, Karachiganak, and some other oil yields at oil fields continued to be introduced. Open – cut coal mining was expanded at Ekibastuz, Maykubek, and Shubarkul coalfields, with the aim of reducing the mining of coal underground at low-profit and non-profitable mines of the Karaganda coalfields.

In the metallurgical industry, the development of production of ferrous metals and the raw-materials basis of such production continued, including the revamping of the Karaganda metallurgical plant with the aid of foreign investment; its re-orientation toward the iron ore pellets of the Sokolovsko – Saribai mining association; the development of production of stainless steel and rolled metal and the building of an electric metallurgical plant for the production of stainless steels in Aktobe; further development of ferrous alloys in Aktobe and Aksu and of its raw-materials basis –the Donskoy ore –dressing plant; the re-orientation of idle production lines of JSC Khimprom to the production of ferromanganese. Organizational measures were taken in 1994 to develop production of fireproof materials.

At the same time there was a fall in the production of ferrous metallurgy due to an aggravation of the raw materials and fuel shortage and a parlous state of equipment at enterprises of this industry. The decline in industrial production was to a considerable extent due to non-solvency of enterprises in view of their insufficient financial resources, non-payment by the buyers for products delivered, and weak financial discipline.

The decline in non-ferrous metallurgy continued, as production of copper, titanium, and manganese fell. To check the decline in this branch of industry, the production lines at the Chilisai ore-dressing plant switched to a different product; the Zyryanovsky lead plant was rebuilt, and its commissioning was brought forward; the raw – materials basis for the titanium industry was created, as was the Syrymbet tin field, the tin being produced at the Tselinny chemical plant. The functioning gold mines and ore-dressing plants were revamped, and work was accelerated to develop major gold fields at Vasilkov, Bakyrchik, and Akbakai.

Реферат опубликован: 18/07/2008