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[4] Everybody in the clan had the same family name, like MacDonald or MacGregor (mac means son of). The clan had its own territory and was ruled by a chieftain.

[5] so they called the Saxons (and still call the English)

[6] Act of Union 1707 act of Parliament that brought about the union of England and Scotland

[7] Calton Hill overlooks Central Edinburgh from the east.

[8] Arthurs Seat hill of volcanic origin to the east of the centre of Edinburgh. It forms the core of Holyrood Park and is a dominant landmark: Castlehill is the rock of volcanic origin on which Edinburgh Castle is situated.

[9] Edwin (c585 633) king of Nothumbria from 617. He captured and fortified Edinburgh, which was named after him.

[10] St. Margaret ( c1045 1093 ) Queen of Scotland. She was canonized in 1251 in recognition of her benefactions to the church.

[11] Tattoo the word derives from the Dutch word tap-toe, which means turn off the taps.

[12] Knox, John (1513 (1514) 1572) Scottish reformer, founder of the Church of Scotland

[13] The Order of the Thistle Scotlands highest order

[14] Declaration of Arbroath Declaration 26 April 1320 by Scottish nobles to their loyalty to King Robert I and of Scotlands identity as a kingdom independent of England.

[15] Edinburgh Festival has annually been held since 1947. It takes place from August to September and includes music, drama, opera and art exhibition.

[16] Jenners the oldest independent department store in the world.

[17] Heriot, Jeorge (1563 1624) Scottish goldsmith and philanthropist; Watt, James (1736 1819) Scottish engineer who developed the steam engine in 1760.

[18] Napier, John (1550 1617) Scottish mathematician who invented logariths in 1614.

[19] Tartan it is traditional Scottish drawing which consists of wide and narrow cross stripes of different colour and size; the softest wool of vivid colouring.

[20] Falkirk unitary authority, Scotland, 37 kilometres west of Edinburgh.

[21] Tossing the caber Scottish athletic sport. The caber (a tapered tree trunk about 6 metres long, weighing about 100 kilograms) is held in the palms of the cupped hands and rests on the shoulder. The thrower runs forward and tosses the caber, rotating it through 180 degrees so that it lands on its opposite end and falls forward. The best competitors toss the caber about 12 metres.

[22] Great Glen valley in Scotland following coast-to-coast geological fault line, which stretches over 100 kilometres south-west from Inverness on the North Sea to Fort William on the Atlantic coast.

[23] Pentland Firth channel separated the Orkney Islands from the northern mainland of Scotland.

[24] RAF Royal Air Force, the British airforce.

[25] NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration, a US government organization that controls space travel and the scientific study of space.

[26] Presbyterianism a religion close to Protestantism

[27] Thistle is also the emblem of the whole Scotland.

: 29/08/2008