Tupolev 154M noise asesment

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2.1 Hearing Loss

Hearing loss is one of the most obvious and easily quantified effects of excessive exposure to noise. Its progression, however, is insidious, in that it usually develops slowly over a long period of time, and the impairment can reach the handicapping stage before an individual is aware of what has happened.

Prolonged exposure to noise of a certain frequency pattern can cause either temporary hearing loss, which disappears in a few hours or days, or permanent loss. The former is called temporary threshold shift, and the latter is known as permanent threshold shift.

Temporary threshold shift is generally not damaging to human’s ear unless it is prolonged. People who work in noisy environments commonly are victims of temporary threshold shift.

Figure 2.1 Temporary threshold shift for rock band performers.

Repeated noise over a long time leads to permanent threshold shift. This is especially true in industrial applications where people are subjected to noises of a certain frequency.

There is some disagreement as to the level of noise that should be allowed for an 8-hour working day. Some researchers and health agencies insist that 85 dB(A) should be the limit. Industrial noise level limitations are shown in the Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Maximum Permissible Industrial Noise Levels By OSHA

(Occupational Safety and Health Act)

Sound Level, dB(A)

Maximum Duration

During Any

Working Day
















Noise-induced hearing loss is probably the most well-defined of the effects of noise. Predictions of hearing loss from various levels of continuous and varying noise have been extensively researched and are no longer controversial. Some discussion still remains on the extent to which intermittencies ameliorate the adverse effects on hearing and the exact nature of dose-response relationships from impulse noise. It appears that some members of the population are somewhat more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss than others, and there is a growing body of evidence that certain drugs and chemicals can enhance the auditory hazard from noise.

Although the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss from industrial populations is more extensively documented, there is growing evidence of hearing loss from leisure time activities, especially from sport shooting, but also from loud music, noisy toys, and other manifestations of our "civilized" society. Because of the increase in exposure to recreational noise, the hazard from these sources needs to be more thoroughly evaluated. Finally, the recent evidence that hearing protective devices do not perform in actual use the way laboratory tests would imply, lends support to the need for reevaluating current methods of assessing hearing protector attenuation.

2.2 Noise Interference

Noise can mask important sounds and disrupt communication between individuals in a variety of settings. This process can cause anything from a slight irritation to a serious safety hazard involving an accident or even a fatality because of the failure to hear the warning sounds of imminent danger. Such warning sounds can include the approach of a rapidly moving motor vehicle, or the sound of malfunctioning machinery. For example, Aviation Safety states that hundreds of accident reports have many "say again" exchanges between pilots and controllers, although neither side reports anything wrong with the radios.

Noise can disrupt face-to-face and telephone conversation, and the enjoyment of radio and television in the home. It can also disrupt effective communication between teachers and pupils in schools, and can cause fatigue and vocal strain in those who need to communicate in spite of the noise. Interference with communication has proved to be one of the most important components of noise-related annoyance.

Interference with speech communication and other sounds is one of the most salient components of noise-induced annoyance. The resulting disruption can constitute anything from an annoyance to a serious safety hazard, depending on the circumstance.

Реферат опубликован: 28/08/2007