The profile of an effective manager

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Maslows theory has received wide recognition, but unfortunately research does not validate the theory. A theory that contests Maslows theory is Alderfers ERG Theory, where E stands for existence (cfr. the physiological and safety needs), R for relatedness (cfr. the social needs and the external component of the esteem need) and G for growth needs (cfr. the internal esteem component and the self-actualization need). This theory differs from Maslows in that (1) more than one need may be operative at the same time and (2), if the gratification of a higher level need is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. In opposite to Maslows theory, several studies do have supported this theory. It takes into account that in different cultures the categories can be ranked in another way, for example Japan, where the social needs are placed under the physiological ones.

Another classical need theory is the Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor. These two theories represent two distinct views of human beings: Theory X makes the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform, where Theory Y stipulates that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility and can exercise self-direction. Research suggests that these theories may be applicable but only in particular situations.

Maybe the most important contribution to the motivation question comes from the psychologist Frederick Herzberg with his Two-Factor Theory. The insight Herzberg brought to the matter meant a u-turn in previously thinking. He stated as first that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, as was traditionally believed, but that both are distinct and separate. Intrinsic factors such as the work itself, responsibility, and achievement seem to be related with satisfaction (motivators), while extrinsic factors such as supervision, pay, company policies and working conditions are associated with dissatisfaction (hygiene factors). This theory has had a major impact on management in the last 30 years and the fact that managers nowadays allow workers greater responsibility in planning and controlling their work can probably be attributed largely to Herzbergs findings and recommendations

2. Goal-Setting Theory (E. Locke):

The primary idea of this theory is that specific and difficult goals, with goal/ feedback, lead to a higher performance. This means that, for example, to motivate someone, you dont say Just do your best, but you say specific what has to be obtained, for example You should strive for 85 percent or higher on all your work in English. Research supports this theory in that this do can lead to a higher performance, although it may not lead to job satisfaction (cfr. supra).

3. Reinforcement Theory:

This theory states that reinforcement conditions behaviour. Behaviour is thereby environmentally caused. What controls behaviour are reinforcers any consequence that , when immediately following a response, increases the probability that the behaviour will be repeated. The theory ignores the inner state of the individual and concentrates solely on what happens to a person when he or she takes some action. Because it does not concern with what initiates behaviour, it is not, strictly speaking, a theory of motivation. But it does provide a powerful means of analysing of what controls behaviour, and it is for this reason that it is typically considered in discussions on motivation.

4. Equity Theory (J. S. Adams):

This theory poses that individuals compare their job inputs (i.e. effort, experience ) and outcomes (i.e. salary, recognition ) with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities. For example a person who does the same job as another employee but gets paid less will be motivated to perform better in order to eliminate the existing inequities.

5. Expectancy Theory (V. Vroom):

This is currently one of the most accepted explanations of motivation. Most of the research evidence is supportive of this theory. Concrete, this theory says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good performance appraisal will lead to organizational rewards such as a bonus, a salary increase, or a promotion; and that the rewards will satisfy the employees goals.

: 16/05/2006