Contract has a written standard form. It also has some essential clauses, such as contract number, subject of contract, quality and price of goods, delivery terms, packing and marking, transport conditions, arbitration, force majeure, judicial addressees of the sides and their signatures. Some articles may be supplemented and altered. Every clause has its own specifics.
Besides a contract form, there are other forms related to it: Supplement to Contract, Order and Order Confirmation. The Master Pattern as a basis for standardised forms of enquires and offers is used at pre-contract stages of a deal. Contract is supported with requests, remindings, verifications of different terms, guarantee, waving inspection letters, etc.
Contracts differ in the point of deliverance, the way of deliverance, payment terms. Delivery terms are marked with the International Commercial Terms (Incoterms), which are mostly abbreviated. Abbreviations serve as signs of the code of documents.
Contracts can be export and import (orders). Import contracts include harder conditions towards sellers than export ones. As textual varieties contracts can be administrative-managerial, financial-economical, advertising, scientific-technical and artistic-publicational by sphere of circulation. The subject of a deal may be ordering and purchasing of oil products, machinery tools, grain, timber, and whatever possible.
As a type of a document, contract fixes some information. Stylistic peculiarities of contract are concreteness, conciseness, clearness of the idea, high capacity of information, strict logic, clear rhyth of sentences, word repetitions which accent the main idea, no connotations, cliches and stamps, usage of monosemantic words and words in their direct logical meaning, division of text into chapters, paragraphs, points, presence of definite syntactic structure.
The major difference of contract from other business papers is that it is made up by two sides, and information in them is approved by them both. All informational details are not suitable. Contract is formal, complete, clear, concrete, correct and concise. It is also neat and has an attractive arrangement. The tone of contract is neutral and devoid of both pompous and informal language. It means there are no colloquial words and expressions, idioms, phrasal verbs. Abbreviations are not used if possible. Full forms of words are preferable. Sums are written both in figures and words.
Grammatical peculiarities of contact are characterised by high usage of verbals. Its text is presented mostly with infinitive and participial constructions. Among infinitive constructions are singled out those ones with the Simple / Indefinite and Perfect Infinitives as adjuncts to active and passive (only in newspapers and contracts) verbs and the Simple Infinitives as complex adjuncts to active verbs.
Participial constructions are of the following types. Participle I refers to a noun in the General Case which goes before the participle. Perfect Participles are rare. Participle II either follows or precedes a noun.
As for the tense-aspect forms of the English verb, the Indefinite and Perfect tenses, both in the Active and Passive voices, are used instead of analytical forms. The past tenses are rarely used.
Shall and should are used with all numbers and persons. Omitting if in subordinate clauses is another feature of contract. The definite article is used with ships, the words Buyers and Sellers. It is not used, though, after prepositions of the Latin origin per and ex, with nouns followed by a number in sizes, codes, etc.
Реферат опубликован: 28/01/2009