Linguistic Pecularities Of Contracts in English

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e.g. They have arranged to produce the equipment.

We won’t fail to provide full particulars as soon as possible.

We propose to settle by bill of exchange at 60 days, documents against acceptance.

In the case the suppliers want to have any additional information you should contact us immediately.

Generally in contracts and agreements the infinitive adjunct to an active verb is a simple infinitive. Sometimes, however, it may be followed by the perfect infinitive, indicating an action which precedes that one of the predicate verb. As for the continuous infinitive in this function the analysis of contracts has proved that it is hardly ever used.

e.g. Property in goods, to have passed to Buyers when goods have been put a board.

You don’t appear to have taken into account the annual summer works’ shut-down.

The delivery of goods was to have taken place last month and we have been caused serious inconvenience through the delay.

We expect to have been informed by Feb. 15th.

It should also be noted that in commercial correspondence the subject of the infinitive adjunct is a person (e.g. we, they) or a thing denoted by the subject of the sentence (e.g. our firm).

e.g. We look forward to your early reply.

The Suppliers inform the Buyers that there had been a fire.

Our enquiries with your representative whom we asked…

The infinitive in business correspondence may also serve as an adjunct to a passive verb. In this case it always follows its head-verb and is lexically restricted. The infinitive in this function follows the following verbs: to consider, to expect, to instruct, to prepare, to repute, to require.

e.g. The national Bank of Argentina has been instructed to open a credit valid until 30 November.

The goods are considered to be in conformity with the certificate.

The delivery date is understood to be the date on which the Suppliers apply to the Buyers’ Shipping Agents.

The use of the infinitive adjunct to a passive verb is stylistically restricted. It frequently occurs in newspapers, scientific prose and business correspondence, but it is not characteristic of literary style, and in social English it is not common at all.

The infinitive may serve as an adjunct to an active verb followed by a noun or a pronoun which stands to the infinitive in the relation of a subject. The combination is lexically restricted, because in business correspondence it may be found only after the definite verbs from the following list: to advise, to allow, to ask, to enable, to expert, to help, to prefer, to urge, to want, to wish.

e.g. We would advise you to take an all-rich insurance policy.

If the period of guarantee has not expired we will ask you to replace the machine by another one.

Should the Buyers fail to keep this rate of unloading…

We agree to accept this shipment on condition that you…

The complex infinitive adjunct to an active verb is not restricted stylistically and is in extensive use in scientific and fiction literature and also in commercial and business correspondence.

The Indefinite Infinitive occurs in contracts in the function of the predicate, expressing obligation and a future action.

e.g. Delivery to commence in six to eight months and to be completed in twelve to sixteen months (to commence = will commence).

Date of shipment to be determined by date of Bill of Lading (to be determined = will be determined).

It is allowed only in texts of contracts and other business documents.

Each contract also has constructions with participles.

e.g. The letter of credit is to be valid for 90 days, all bank charges being at the expense of the Buyers.

Реферат опубликован: 28/01/2009