Railroads and Highways. Alabama was among the pioneers in railroad building. Its first railway, between Decatur and Muscle Shoals, was completed in 1832. Today Alabama's railroads are used largely for freight. Hubs of state, federal, and interstate highway systems are Birmingham and Montgomery.
Airlines. Several airlines provide commercial flights to cities in different parts of the state. Frequent daily schedules are available from major centers. Most of the interstate traffic uses the airports at Birmingham, Huntsville, and Mobile. Alabama's system of local airfields, with paved and lighted runways for smaller planes, is considered to be among the best in the nation.
Newspapers, Radio, and Television. Almost every city has its own local newspaper. More than 100 newspapers are published in the state, but only about 20 are dailies. Among the more influential daily newspapers are the Alabama Journal and the Montgomery Advertiser, both published at Montgomery, and the Birmingham News. The Mobile Press-Register, originally the Gazette, is one of the oldest newspapers in the state. It was founded in 1815.
Birmingham had the state's first licensed radio station, WBRC, in 1925, and the first television stations, WABT and WBRC-TV, both in 1949. In 1955 Alabama began operating one of the first state-owned educational television networks (ETV) in the nation. Stations of this network are capable of reaching almost all the people in the state.
Alabama is proud of its natural resources and its industrial development in recent years. State and community leaders also recognize the importance of developing its educational and cultural institutions.
Schools and Colleges
The first teachers in Alabama were probably French and Spanish priests who gave instruction to the Indians. In 1799 a New England cotton merchant, John Pierce, opened a school for the children of wealthy settlers in the Mobile Bay area. It was the kind of pioneer school known as a blab .school because the pupils studied by repeating their lessons aloud.
When Alabama became a state in 1819, an attempt was made to establish a system of public schools. The attempt failed, as did others in later years, largely because of a lack of money. Private schools sprang up to educate the children of parents who could afford to pay. It was not until after the Civil War that the state was able to make progress toward establishing its present system of public elementary schools, high schools, and colleges.
Alabama has more than 50 institutions of higher education. About half of these are 2-year institutions, mainly state-supported junior or community colleges. The others are universities and senior colleges.
The University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa (post office address, University) is Alabama's oldest college. It was established by the legislature in 1820. Other state-supported universities are located at Auburn, Birmingham, Florence, Huntsville, Jacksonville, Livingston, Mobile, Montcvallo, Montgomery, Normal, and Troy. Tuskegcc Institute, the famous school established by Booker T. Washington in 1881, is partly supported by the state.
Throughout the state there are many pub lic and private libraries. The largest public libraries are in Birmingham, Montgomery, and Mobile. The Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library, on the campus of the University of Alabama, is one of the largest libraries in the entire South.
Fine Arts and Museums
Most high schools and junior high schools in the state have bands or orchestras. The Birmingham Civic Symphony gives annual concerts in the city. It also tours the state.
Реферат опубликован: 17/09/2007