: 3/4

GDP: purchasing power parity$108.5 billion (1998 est.)

GDPreal growth rate: -1.7% (1998 est.)

GDPper capita: purchasing power parity$2,200 (1998 est.)

GDPcomposition by sector: agriculture: 14% industry: 30% services: 56% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1% highest 10%: 20.8% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (yearend 1998 est.)

Labor force: 22.8 million (yearend 1997)

Labor forceby occupation: industry and construction 32%, agriculture and forestry 24%, health, education, and culture 17%, trade and distribution 8%, transport and communication 7%, other 12% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 3.7% officially registered; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers (December 1998)

Budget: revenues: $18 billion expenditures: $21 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing (especially sugar)

Industrial production growth rate: -1.5% (1998 est.)

Electricityproduction: 171.8 billion kWh (1998)

Electricityproduction by source: fossil fuel: 47% hydro: 9.2% nuclear: 43.8% other: 0% (1998)

Electricityconsumption: 174 billion kWh (1998)

Electricityexports: 5 billion kWh (1998)

Electricityimports: 7 billion kWh (1998)

Agricultureproducts: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk

Exports: $11.3 billion (1998 est.)

Exportscommodities: ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, food products

Exportspartners: Russia, China,, Turkey, Germany, Belarus (1998)

Imports: $13.1 billion (1998 est.)

Importscommodities: energy, machinery and parts, transportation equipment, chemicals, plastics and rubber

Importspartners: Russia, Germany, US, Poland, Italy (1998)

Debtexternal: $10.9 billion (October 1998)

Economic aidrecipient: $637.7 million (1995); IMF Extended Funds Facility $2.2 billion (1998)

Currency: 1 hryvna=100 kopiykas

Exchange rates: hryvnia per US$13.4270 (February 1999), 2.4495 (1998), 1.8617 (1997), 1.8295 (1996), 1.4731 (1995), 0.3275 (1994) note: in August 1998, Ukraine introduced currency controls in an attempt to fend off the impact of the Russian financial crisis; it created an exchange rate corridor for the hryvnia of 2.5-3.5 hryvnia per US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 12,531,277 (1998)

Telephone system: Ukraine's phone systems are administered through the State Committee for Communications; Ukraine has a telecommunication development plan through 2005; Internet service is available in large cities domestic: localKiev has a digital loop connected to the national digital backbone; Kiev has several cellular phone companies providing service in the different standards; some companies offer intercity roaming and even limited international roaming; cellular phone service is offered in at least 100 cities nationwide international: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved the Ukrainian telephone system; Ukraine's two main fiber-optic lines are part of the Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line (TAE); these lines connect Ukraine to worldwide service through Belarus, Hungary, and Poland; Odesa is a landing point for the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia Undersea Fiber-Optic Cable (ITUR) giving Ukraine an additional fiber-optic link to worldwide service; Ukraine has Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA; noteat least 25 local broadcast stations of NA type (1998)

Radios: 15 million (1990)

Television broadcast stations: at least 33 (in addition 21 repeater stations that relay ORT broadcasts from Russia) (1997)

Televisions: 17.3 million (1992)


Railways: total: 23,350 km broad gauge: 23,350 km 1.524-m gauge (8,600 km electrified)

Highways: total: 172,565 km paved: 163,937 km (including 1,875 km of expressways); notethese roads are said to be hard-surfaced, meaning that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced unpaved: 8,628 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 4,400 km navigable waterways, of which 1,672 km were on the Pryp''yat' and Dnistr (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 4,000 km (1995); petroleum products 4,500 km (1995); natural gas 34,400 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson, Kiev (Kyyiv), Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni

: 9/05/2008