The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

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The situation in Europe and the United States is quite different. Companies sell almost everything from pens to cars and cottages through Internet and such activities give real profit. For example, on 10 May 1999 Apple virtual computer store sold equipment on more than 1.9 million dollars – a record during short history on Internet selling.

In trading part of the Internet the decision to converse from magnetic line cards to smart-cards has been discussed for more then 3 years. As e-companies incur constant losses because of low security level of magnetic line cards If such decision is made we will have the right to say that it will be a final victory of smart-cards over their out of date congeners.


The above analysis of operating smart-cards as modern international payment tools allows me to make the following conclusions:

Impressing results are reached in realization of smart-technology and applying different kinds of plastic cards payment systems in international markets.

The process of developing plastic cards as universal payment systems is in a phase of rapid growth in Russia

There is a clear tendency of intellectualization of plastic cards, based on modern technology chip equipment and electronic communications.

Year 2000 will define tendencies of plastic cards developing once and for all.

The most promising way of introducing smart-cards in big Russian cities is in creating local systems of small sum cashless payments with their further unification into one national cashless payment system.

Sources and literature

Mike Hendry. Smart Card Security and Applications (Artech House Telecommunications Library). Artech House. September 1997

Catherine A. Allen. Smart Cards : Seizing Strategic Business Opportunities : The Smart Card Forum. Irwin Professional Pub. November 1996

Jose Luis Zoreda. Smart Cards. Artech House. December 1994

Ron E. Gielgun. 1 Business, 2 Approaches : How to Succeed in Internet Business by Employing Real-World Strategies. Actium Publishing. September 1998

Bruce J. McLaren, Constance H. McLaren. E- Commerce : Business on the Internet (Computer Applications Series). South-Western Pub. June 1999

Other sources:

WWW-server of Visa Internetional

WWW-server of MasterCard International.

WWW-server of BGS Smartcard Systems AG.

WWW-server of company «I.T.»

Special thanks:

Erik Przekof. Consumer Credit Counseling Services. Farmington Hills, MI, USA

Tyra Turnquest. CCCS of the Gulf Coast & Money Management International. Houston, TX, USA

Реферат опубликован: 30/04/2009