Diabetes Mellitus (when the term diabetes is used alone, it always refers to diabetes mellitus) is a condition in which the body is unable to use sugar properly. Sugar (carbohydrate) is the substance our body uses as its major source of energy. Once this sugar is absorbed in the blood, it is referred to as blood sugar or blood glucose. Insulin (a hormone made in the pancreas that regulates the blood sugar) is either missing or deficient. As a result, the body cannot use energy nutrients (carbohydrates, fat, protein) effectively and the cells of the body "starve". The sugar in the blood may rise to high levels instead of being used for energy. Blood sugar is excreted through urine, which makes extra work for the kidneys causing frequent urination and excessive thirst.
Diet, exercise and medication are important factors that must be coordinated for diabetes to be kept in control. Medication is not used to treat all cases of diabetes. Medication when used can either be in the form of a pill (oral hypoglycemic agents) or insulin, which must be injected. Diet, exercise and medication all affect treatment but unless the diet plan is followed carefully no method of treatment will be effective. By eating the right foods in the right amounts diet can actually help control the basic problem of diabetes.
According to Control Your Diabetes Education Program for Life, a program sponsored by the National Diabetes Education Program, people who take control of diabetes will, in the short run, feel better, have more energy, and prevent the following signs and symptoms of high blood sugar: thirst, fatigue, frequent urination, weight loss, blurred vision, and slow healing of cuts and bruises. In the long run, they decrease their chances of developing eye disease, kidney disease, and nerve damage, and add years to their lives.
THE DIABETIC DIET.
Purpose: The diabetic diet is designed to achieve and maintain desirable body weight and near normal blood glucose levels, reduce hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and associated symptoms of diabetes in order to minimize the complications frequently associated with this disease.
Use: It is used for the person with either insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The calorie-controlled diet may be adapted for weight reduction and weight maintenance.
The calorie level prescribed for the diabetic is based on whether the person needs to lose or gain weight or simply maintain the present weight. The calorie level specified is determined from the height, body build, ideal weight and physical activity level.
General Guidelines for the Diabetic Diet.
Avoid concentrated sources of carbohydrates (sugars) such as table sugar, honey, jelly, jam, molasses, syrup, corn syrup, candy, regular soft drinks, pies, doughnuts, cookies, pastries, regular chewing gum, and sweet pickles.
Avoid sweetened fruits, juices and fruit drinks. Choose fruit, which is fresh, frozen or packed in water or its own juice. Avoid fruits canned in heavy syrup.
Avoid sweetened carbonated sodas, juices and water.
Learn foods both high and low in sugar that are presented in the No Concentrated Sweet Food List
Three meals at regular times should be consumed daily. Do not skip meals.
A nutritionally adequate meal plan that limits the amount of saturated fat, cholesterol and salt in the diet. Fat intake should be 30% or less of caloric intake and less than 10% of daily caloric intake from saturated fat. Dietary cholesterol should be limited to 300 mg or less daily. 2,400 mg or less per day of sodium is recommended.
Daily consumption of 20-35 g of dietary fiber from a wide variety of foods is recommended.
Mild to moderate weight loss (10-20 pounds. has been shown to improve diabetes control, even if desirable body weight is not achieved.)
Read the label to determine the sugar content of packaged foods. In addition to sugar, brown sugar and corn syrup, other names that are used on ingredient labels include: sucrose, glucose, dextrose, fructose, maltose, lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, honey, corn syrup, corn syrup solids, high fructose corn syrup, molasses, maple syrup.
Monitoring of lipids, blood pressure and body weight is crucial.
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and daily monitoring of blood glucose are standard tools to measure glucose control.
Реферат опубликован: 4/05/2006