Stock market

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Also, it may be hard for your broker to give you impartial advice. If the brokerage firm is in the underwriting group, or in the “selling group” of dealers that supplements the underwriting group, it has a vested interest in seeing the securities sold. Also, the commissions are likely to be substantially higher than on an ordinary stock. On the other hand, if the stock is a “hot issue” in great demand, it may be sold only through small individual allocations to favored customers (who will benefit if the stock then trades in the open market at a price well above the fixed offering price)

If you are considering buying a new issue, one protective step you can take is to read the prospectus The prospectus is a legal document describing the company and offering the securities to the public. Unless the offering is a very small one, it can't be made without passing through a registration process with the SEC. The SEC can't vouch for the value of the offering, but it does act to make sure that essential facts about the company and the offering are disclosed in the prospectus.

This requirement of full disclosure was part of the securities laws of the 1930s and has been a great boon to investors and to the securities markets. It works because both the underwriters and the offering companies know that if any material information is omitted or misstated in the prospectus, the way is open to lawsuits from investors who have bought the securities.

In a typical new offering, the final prospectus isn't ready until the day the securities are offered. But before that date you can get a "preliminary prospectus" or "red herring"—so na­med because it carries red lettering warning that the prospectus hasn't yet been cleared by the SEC as meeting disclosure require­ments

The red herring will not contain the offering price or the final underwriting arrangements But it will give you a description of the company's business, and financial statements showing just what the company's growth and profitability have been over the last several years It will also tell you something about the management. If the management group is taking the occasion to sell any large percentage of its stock to the public, be particularly wary.

It is a very different case when an established public company is selling additional stock to raise new capital. Here the company and the stock have track records that you can study, and it's not so difficult to make an estimate of what might be a reasonable price for the stock The offering price has to be close to the current market price, and the underwriters' profit margin will generally be smaller But you still need to be careful. While the SEC has strict rules against promoting any new offering, the securities industry often manages to create an aura of enthusiasm about a company when an offering is on the way On the other hand, the knowledge that a large offering is coming may depress the market price of a stock, and there are times when the offering price turns out to have been a bargain

New bond offerings are a different animal altogether. The bond markets are highly professional, and there is nothing glamorous about a new bond offering. Everyone knows that a new A-rated corporate

bond will be very similar to all the old A-rated bonds. In fact, to sell the new issue effectively, it is usually priced at a slightly higher "effective yield" than the current market for comparable older bonds—either at a slightly higher interest rate, or a slightly lower dollar price, or both. So for a bond buyer, new issues often offer a slight price advantage.

Реферат опубликован: 3/03/2010