The Congress in work. A new Congress session begins on the 3rd of January each odd number year and continues for two years. A Congressman must work long and hard. But most of their work is done in committee meetings. Here bills are studied, experts are consulted, and recommendations are made to the whole House of Senate. During a two year term of a Congress, as many as 20000 bills are introduced. There are 16 'standing' or permanent committees in the Senate, and 22 in the House. They accept and improve some bills, but reject most of them. For a bill becomes a law it must be read, studied in committees, commented on and amended in the Senate or House chamber in which it was introduced. It is then voted upon. If it passes, it is sent to the other house where a similar procedure occurs. Members of both houses work together in "conference committees" if the chambers have passed different versions of the same bill. Groups who try to persuade Congressmen to vote for or against a bill are known as "lobbies". When both houses of Congress pass a bill on which they agree, it is sent to the president for his signature. If President is disapproves, he vetoes and refusing to sign it, and sends it back to Congress. President’s objection are read and debated. To overcome the President's veto, the bill must get a 2/3 majority in each chamber.
Lobbyists. Often discussing Congress of the USA, the third chamber is mentioned. It's a specific American phenomena called lobbies. Today ifs big corporations, social organisations, foreign diplomats, who try to influence lawmaking process in their favour. This is done with the help of lobbyists. Practically lobbyism (backstage influence in legislation) has become legal, it means, that the passing of a bill can be prevented, if it doesn’t suit the interests of a definite group of big business. Lobbyists make all themselves legislative councils. More and more people realise that legislation is shaped as much by the hidden influences, as by the public debates.
The executive branch. The executive power in the USA belongs to the President and his Administration. The Presidency in the USA is the highest governmental office. President in the USA is the head of the state and the government, and also the commander-in-chief of the US Armed Forces.
Vice-resident and the Cabinet assist president. The President and Vice-president are elected for a term of four years and can be reelected. President must be a natural-born citizen of the USA and at least 35 years old, and for at least 14 years resident of the USA. The term of office of the President begins on the 2nd of January. Presidential elections are head in two stages - in November and December. Before the elections the candidates for Presidency tour the country, meeting people and delivering speeches.
The president, as the chief formulator of public policy, often proposes legislation to Congress. The president can also veto (forbid) any bill passed by Congress. The veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and House of Representatives. As head of his political party, with ready access to the news media, the president can easily influence public opinion regarding issues and legislation that he deems vital. President conducts foreign affairs, signed documents, appoints diplomats, Cabinet Members, federal judges with the consent and advice of the Senate. He outlines the course of his administration threw Congress.
Vice-president presides over the Senate, his other duties are indefinite. He takes the president's office, if the president is unable to finish his term. So Vice-president is 'a forgotten man of the American politics'. A Cabinet of 12 members assists the US President. Cabinet secretaries correspond to European ministers. They are heads of different departments and are responsible to President. Today these 13 departments are State, Treasury, Defence, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labour, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy and Education. The State Department ranks ahead of others. The political power of the Secretary of the State is the second only to that of the president. He must maintains peace and negotiates economic and political treatness.
Besides, President has an inner Cabinet, the so-called 'white-house office', i. e. immediate assistance and advises of the President. The House of Representatives may bring charges against the President, it is called 'impeachment' - a formal accusation against a public official by a legislative body, for treason, bribery and other high crimes.
Реферат опубликован: 3/11/2009