1. Introduction 2
2. Early years 2
3. Service in the Mediterranean . 4
4. Battles of Cape St. Vincent and the Nile 5
5. Blockade of Naples and battle of Copenhagen . 7
6. Victory at Trafalgar 9
7. Assessment 11
8. Bibliography 12
Nelson Horatio Nelson, Viscount Duca (duke) Di Bronte, also called (1797 - 1798) sir Horatio Nelson, or (1798 - 1801) baron Nelson of the Nile and Burnham-Thorpe (b. September 29, 1758, Burnham Thorpe, Nor-folk, Eng. - d. October 21, 1805, at sea, off Cap Trafalgar, Spain), British naval commander in the wars with Revolutionary and Napoleonie France, who won crucial victories in such battles as those of the Nail (1798) of Trafalgar (1805), where he was killed by enemy fire on the HMS "Victory". In private life he was known for his extended love affair with Emma, Lady Hamilton, while both were married.
Horatio Nelson was the sixth of 11 children of the village rector, Edmund Nelson, and his wife, Catherine. The Nelson were genteel, scholarly, and poor. The family's most important connection from which Nelson could expect preferment was that with a distant relation, Lord Walpole, the descendant of sir Robert Walpole, who had been prime minister earlier in the century. Decisive for Nelson's life, however, was his mother's brother, Capt. Maurice Suckling, who was to become comptroller of the British Navy. When Horatio's mother died, Captain Suckling agreed to take the boy to sea.
Nelson's first years in the navy were a mixture of routine experience and high adventure. The former was gained particularly in the Thames estuary, the latter in voyage to the West Indies by merchant ship and a dangerous and unsuccessful scientific expedition to the Arctic in 1773. Nelson had his first taste of action in the Indian Ocean. Soon after, struck down by fever - probably malaria - he was invalided home, and, while recovering from the consequent depression, Nelson experienced a dramatic surge of optimism. From that moment, Nelson's ambition, fired by patriotism tempered by the Christian compassion instilled by his father, urged him to prove himself at least the equal of his eminent kinsmen.
In 1777 Nelson passed the examination for lieutenant and sailed for the West Indies, the most active theater in the war against the American colonies. Promoted to captain in 1779, at the early age of the 20, he was given command of frigate and took part in operations against Spanish settlements in Nicaragua, which became targets once Spain joined France in alliance with the American Revolutionaries. The attack on San Juan was militarily successful but ultimately disastrous when the British force was almost wiped out by yellow fever; Nelson himself was lucky to survive.
In 1783, after the end of the American Revolution, Nelson returned to England by way of France. On his return to London he was cheered by the appointment, in 1784, to mand a frigate bound for the West Indies. But this was not to be a happy commission. By rigidly enforcing the navigation Act against American ships, which were still trading with the British privileges they had officially lost, he made enemies not only among merchants shipowners but also among the resident British authorities who, in their own interest, had failed to enforce the law. Under the strain of his difficulties and of the loneliness of command. Nelson was at his most vulnerable when he visited the island of Nevis in March 1785. There he met Frances Nisbet, a widow, and her five-year-old son, Josiah. Nelson conducted his courtship with formality charm, and in March 1787 the couple was married at Nevis.
Реферат опубликован: 16/03/2006