Russians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to education is stated in the constitution of the Russia Federation. It’s ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education establishment. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.
Education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The stages of compulsory schooling in Russia are: primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum» of academic subjects, such as…
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offer programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a technical field, or a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go into higher education. All applicants must take competitive exam. Higher education institution, that is institutes or universities, offer a 5-years programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidates degree or a doctoral degree.
Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has a number of faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate and doctoral degrees.
The system of higher and secondary education in Russia is going trough a transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedom to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private fee-paying primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying departments.
All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are 17 or 18. Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence tests. There were different types of state secondary schools and at the age of 11 children went to different schools in accordance of with the results of the tests.
State schools are divided into the following types:
Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools are usually those who show a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools now also have some technical courses.
Technical schools. Some children go to technical schools. Most courses there are either commercial or technical.
Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in working with there hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical schools and learn some trade.
Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine all types of secondary education. They have physic, chemistry, biology laboratories, machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography, history and art departments, commercial and domestic courses.
There are also many schools which the State doesn’t control. They are private schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them are boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.
After leaving school many young people go to colleges or further education. Those who become students at Colleges of Technology (called “Techs”) come from different schools at different ages between 15 and 17. The lectures at such colleges, each an hour long, start at 8,15 and end at 4,45 in the afternoon.
From the end of World War II the state in the United Kingdom provides a full range of free educational facilitates. Those parents who send their children to private institution, and could afford it, are free to do so.
The organization of state schooling is not centralized as in the most European countries. Firstly, there is no prescribed curriculum. Secondly, the types of school available and the age rangers for which they cater vary in different parts of country. In each area Local educational Authority is responsible for education. At any publicly-manicured school no tuition fees are payable. State schooling in the UK is financed partly by the Governmental and partly by local rates.
Реферат опубликован: 8/08/2006